• One of the largest influential periods for the development of artist publications and manifestos was before and during WWI – 1914
• Politics shone through during this period through unrest. Revolution, rebellion and introduction to modern art movements such as Cubism, Futurism, Russian Constructivism and Suprematism
• Italian poet; Filippo Tommaso Marinetti.
• Vorticism movement, 1914. Invented BLAST journal, the first 20 pages were arranged like a manifesto
• De Stijl journal edited by Theo van Doesburg from 1917
• Jan Tschichold, a German typographer and book designer who, in 1923, converted to Modernist design principles after exposure to Russian constructivist art and visiting the first Weimar Bauhaus, the revolutionary art, design and technical university.
• Die Neue Typographie was an incredibly popular book and its design rules were
enthusiastically adopted by typographers and printers, who adapted his way of working for
a huge range of printed matter.
• Neue Grafik, or the International Review of graphic design and related subjects, was
initiated by designer Josef Müller-Brockmann and published in 18 issues between 1958 and 1965.
• Video 1: 1950’s Switzerland – unjective graphic design. Typography and photography were used to communicate facts to people – sober, simple and driven by typography (simplified) – photographs were preferred over illustrations (as it is factual, this is what happened etc.) Akzidenz Grotesk. Everything is presented like police forensic photography; plain and simple. The photograph should express a plain and simplistic message to the audience.
• Bauhaus and constructivism highly influenced graphic design practice after the first two world wars in 1950’s and as a result graphic design became contemporary. America is a good example of this as a company spent large sum of money to advertise their products in modernised style.
• Video 2: Paul Rand talks about how important graphic design is and the role it plays. The benefit of design to a business man is that design adds a great deal of value; making it look better and often, design improves the product itself. Good design makes things memorable and easy to understand, thus improving general qualities of life. Practical design needs to consider aesthetics and content. Design is often seen as being “fashionable” and not following the principles, meaning it isn’t effective. Logo design isn’t about an illustration, it’s the logo which becomes the brand. Thoughts on design published in 1947
• Adrian Shaughnessy and Tony Brook – SPIN studio “Unit Editions”.
• Video 3: Designing books that publishers wouldn’t ordinarily get involved with. Design books made for designers by designers – contemporary and modern. Identity manuals (before the internet) have been photographed, and captured in their essence into two case study books.
• Craig Oldham – “Oh Sh*t What Now?” Book which offers advice to recent graduates and transparent information about the industry.
• Octavo magazine relating to typography – lavish printing techniques including printing with coal dust from a colliery.
• Video 4: production process for the mining typography project using coal dust.
• Collector’s Edition: Innovative Packaging and Graphics.